Digital storytelling is the result of the combination of traditional storytelling with the use of multimedia technology (Normann, 2011; Lowenthal y Dunlap, 2010; Heo, 2009). It is a tool that allows to significantly enhance the possibilities both in the creation of the stories and in their subsequent transmission (Di Fuccio & Mastroberti, 2018).
Digital narration tools allow the integration of elements from different sensory fields in the composition of a story (image, sound, movement, etc.), which can be elaborated both individually and collaboratively.
On the other hand, in the transmission of digital stories, the audience is considered as active participants, who can interact and modify the story (Dorner, 2002). In general, online users are considered potential co-creators of information: they can read, criticize, post and share any content, opening the possibility of collaborating in its creation and development (Lits, 2012).
According to the definition of the National Storytelling Network, storytelling can be defined as “the interactive art of using words and actions to transmit the elements and images of a story while stimulating the viewer’s narration”.
Current technological advances have led to a significant increase in the use of technology in everyday life, and therefore also in classrooms. It is currently considered that digital tools can be an aid in the construction of students’ knowledge and ideas, providing new strategies to present and share them effectively (Standley, 2003).
Contributions of digital narration to education
Different investigations have pointed out the advantages of digital storytelling in the development of competencies and student involvement (Barret, 2006). Among the aspects mentioned, it has been considered that digital narration has effects on the development of practical competences, related both to educational content and to the participation and involvement of students in the classroom. It can be an effective way to promote communication skills, relationships between students or the integration of students with difficulty (Barret, 2006; Di Blas, 2009, 2010; Porter, 2004).
Elaboration of digital stories provides students with the possibility of using interactive media to involve the audience and demonstrate their knowledge. Knowledge of the subject to be addressed and the ability to think about the process of converting materials to an interactive format are required (Robin, 2008). In cases where narratives are developed collaboratively, students must also cooperate and make decisions about what information to include, the format and elements desired to convey their message effectively (Robin, 2008).
Regarding the acquisition of academic skills and knowledge, the use of digital storytelling in the classroom can be a support for the development of narrative skills, reflective learning, project-based learning and the effective integration of technology in education , the development of creativity in problem-solving, knowledge and management of tools and technological means (Barret, 2006; Ohler, 2008; Di Blas, 2009, 2010).
On a practical level, it has also been pointed out that the development of digital stories has a positive effect on the use and development of strategies to gather information, create new ideas and organize knowledge, facilitate the understanding of academic content (Stacey and Hardy , 2011; Porter, 2004; Paull, 2002, Salpeter, 2005), written and vocabulary skills (Burmark, 2004; Kajder and Swenson, 2004; Papadopoulou and Ioannis, 2010).
On the other hand, there are also lines of research that consider narratives as a possible help for children with special needs and problem behaviours. Through the story, the audience lives stories, experiences and learns to empathize with the characters, strengthening aspects such as communication, emotional expression and empathy (Faver and Alanis, 2012; Unnsteinsdótti, 2012; Johnson, 2012; Banks, 2012 ).
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INCLUDED – Digital Storytelling for Inclusion